279 - The Radio Centenary

Sem sentir o tempo passar, o rádio chegou aos 100 anos. Assim como com o livro, várias vezes já sentenciaram sua extinção. No entanto, ele resiste, porque tem força e capacidade de manter-se lado a lado com a evolução dos costumes e da tecnologia.
by John Rigg.

On January 13th 1910 the De Forest Radio Laboratory transmitted the first public radio {yootooltip title=[ broadcast ]} broadcast - transmissão {/yootooltip} of a live performance from New York’s Metropolitan Opera House. Enrico Caruso and Riccardo Martin performed arias from Cavalleria Rusticana and Pagliacci. On the 100th anniversary of this event, radio stations around the world continue to broadcast to millions of listeners. Experts predict the death of radio again and again; but radio not only survives today, it prospers!

How has radio survived the introduction of television, then cable and satellite services, and, more recently, mp3 players, the Internet and podcasts? US radio station owner Steve Keeney explains: “Radio re-invents itself. Today radio is more local and {yootooltip title=[targets its audiences]} targets its audiences - transmite para servir a uma audiência {/yootooltip}. For example, talk radio stations are also very popular because they let listeners express their views.”

In the 1960s radio had an important role in the birth of pop culture. Teenagers around the world listened to the latest pop music on transistor radios, which {yootooltip title=[ they hid under their pillows ]} they hid under their pillows - escondiam debaixo do travesseiro {/yootooltip} from disapproving parents. This was the age of pirate radio and rebellion against laws that regulated transmissions. Today radio transmitters are so small that pirate FM stations broadcast illegally all over the world. London has over 20 illegal stations, including Shine 87.9 and Genesis.

Public radio stations {yootooltip title=[ NPR ]} NPR - National Public Radio {/yootooltip} and the {yootooltip title=[BBC]} BBC - British Broadcasting Corporation {/yootooltip}, in the US and UK, have also evolved: for example, the BBC has local stations in every region and city in Britain. The BBC remains very successful, with over 30 million people listening to its seven national stations every week. Tradition and innovation are very important at the BBC: while Radio 4’s The Archers is the world’s longest-running {yootooltip title=[soap opera]} soap opera - radionovela {/yootooltip}, it has over a million listeners each week using the BBC’s internet-based iPlayer.
Listener Wendy Lee from Devon suggests: “Radio survives because it’s free. You simply turn it on and listen!

Guglielmo Marconi was fascinated by the work of German physicist Heinrich Hertz on electromagnetic {yootooltip title=[waves]} waves - ondas {/yootooltip}. During a summer holiday in the mountains near Biella, Italy in 1894, he had the inspired idea of using Hertzian waves to communicate. In the following months, he worked on the invention of an elementary radio set. The first version transmitted a {yootooltip title=[ weak ]} weak - fraco {/yootooltip} signal from the window of his laboratory to the end of the garden. His first real victory came when he managed to send a message beyond a hill at the bottom of his garden. The Italian government didn’t recognise the importance of Marconi’s invention, so he went to England to patent and develop it. He founded the Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company and introduced {yootooltip title=[ wireless ]} wireless - sem fio {/yootooltip} telegraphy to the world.

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